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Cyclone Pam leaves ‘unprecedented disaster' in Vanuatu

 

Stories of devastation emerge from Oxfam staffers.

Cyclone Pam, possibly one of the worst ever seen in the Pacific region, has now passed over the island nation of Vanuatu, and reports are emerging of the devastation left in its wake as Oxfam prepares to launch an emergency response.

 
Packing winds of up to 160 miles per hour, the storm slammed directly into Port Vila, Vanuatu’s capital on the island of Efate, where about 65,000 people live. Oxfam staffers there are reporting the complete destruction of homes: Winds have uprooted trees three stories tall, and in some of the smaller communities, barely any houses are left standing.
 
Power and water have been knocked out and people are still not able to move around freely.
 
“The scale of this disaster is unprecedented in this country and the proud people of Vanuatu are going to need a lot of help to rebuild their homes and their lives,” said Colin Collett van Rooyen, Oxfam’s Vanuatu country director. He said residents have told him that they have never seen a cyclone of this intensity and were scared about the devastation that will likely unfold as emergency teams make their way into hard-to-reach areas.

Slightly smaller than Northern Ireland, Vanuatu is a Y-shaped chain of four main islands and 80 smaller ones made up mostly of mountains with narrow coastal plains. Though many of the islands are uninhabited, the total population of the country is estimated to be close to 267,000 - that's around twice the population of Cork city.

Port Vila, the capital, has been named in the Natural Hazards Risk Atlas as the city most exposed to natural disasters in the world because of the risks it faces from earthquakes, tsunamis, flooding, and cyclones like Pam.

 

Wake-up call for disaster risk reduction

For the president of Vanuatu, the terrible reality of those risks reportedly brought him close to tears as he delivered his opening statement Saturday at the World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction in Sendai, Japan. The event is aimed at tackling the devastating impacts of disasters.
 
“I speak to you today with a heart that is so heavy,” said the president, Baldwin Lonsdale. “I stand to ask you to give a lending hand to responding to this calamity that has struck us.”
 
Ben Murphy, the humanitarian advocacy lead for Oxfam Australia who is attending the conference, said Lonsdale’s words are a wake-up call for the international community which is not doing enough to help reduce the risk of disasters like this and the impact they have on the world’s most vulnerable people.
 
“With Cyclone Pam and Typhoon Haiyan scale events likely to increase in severity, including due to the effects of climate change, current disaster risk reduction, preparedness, and response capacities from the local to the national and international levels will increasingly be pushed to the breaking point in the future,” said Murphy. “That’s why delegations meeting in Sendai need to have President Lonsdale’s words ringing in their ears as they negotiate new international framework on disaster risk reduction.”
 

Oxfam in Vanuatu

 
Oxfam has been working on disaster preparedness at both the local and national level in Vanuatu for the past four years. We have been funding communities to build cyclone-proof classrooms and coordinating the Vanuatu humanitarian team while working closely with governments and donor agencies to strengthen disaster preparedness across the country.
 
Following disasters like Cyclone Pam, Oxfam’s first step is to assess where the greatest needs are and then make determinations about shelter, clean water, sanitation, and food supplies.
 
The Vanuatu Humanitarian Team, coordinated by Oxfam, is now in action. As we learn more, we will continue to provide updates on the situation.

 

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Celebrating female climate change fighters

This International Women’s Day, we want to celebrate Female Climate Change Fighters. In places like Bolivia, the Philippines and Zimbabwe, small-scale female farmers show resilience and strength as they battle the effects of climate change and make their livelihoods happen despite unpredictable weather, dry spells and extreme flooding.

These women are fierce in their efforts to support their families and communities, producing crops that often fail or are destroyed because of the impact of climate change on their environments.

Rosario lives in Guayaramerin in Bolivia and is part of The Santa Rosa Community, made up of around 30 families living in the extreme north-east of the country. In recent years, the climate has changed bringing extreme and uncontrolled floods with devastating results.

Rosario says: “We talk a lot about the climate and how it is affecting us. We, as people who live in the forest, see [that] the main issue is deforestation – that is affecting us all and is impacting on the climate. Because we are all so concerned, we have implemented agro-forestry systems, which are our way of trying to preserve the forest, and ensure we are not contributing to climate change.

“In the past it was cooler during the day but now more and more there is extreme heat and the sun is burning more and more strongly. For me, it is really hard. For everyone it is a challenge to find the right way of cropping because the weather has changed so much.

“Everybody should be getting involved in this issue – especially Governments. But at the moment we don’t see enough results. This is what is worrying.”

In the Philippines, 20 year old Langging has lived in the farming community of Bagumbayan in the south island of Mindanao in the Philippines her whole life. She loved attending school, until unexpected extremes in weather meant her family’s harvest failed and her parents didn’t have enough money for her to continue her studies. Her plan was to train as a vet so she could support her community in caring for their livestock.

Despite this setback, she is using her energy to support her community in the fight against climate change. She is a Youth Leader for her local area and brings together groups of young people to talk about their experiences of the effects of climate change, bringing their concerns to the local government, and other people who have the power to make change happen.

“Climate change is a big concern for young people like me. If it’s hard to plant and grow crops now, what about the next few decades? What about when we’re trying to grow enough food to survive the longer dry spells in the future?

“As a youth leader, I’m inspired to call for other young people to act on climate change. It is important for us to dialogue with the people in power – the government officials – so they will know what the issues are.”

In Zimbabwe, rainfall is becoming increasingly erratic and it's hard for farmers like Ipaishe to predict when to plant.

Passionate and energetic, Ipaishe along with other women in her community is part of an irrigation project, trying to adapt and continue to grow crops despite the decreasing rainfall. They use their experience to campaign for climate change adaptation techniques to ensure farmers in Zimbabwe can grow enough food to feed themselves - whatever the weather.

“The way we survive here is by farming - it’s the only livelihood we have. The food we produce makes us healthy and strong, and the surplus food we grow, we can sell and get money for school fees and hospital fees.

“Over the last 10 years the climate has changed. We have had times where there was a lot of rain and all of our crops were destroyed and so we couldn’t harvest any food. Another time the rains came as normal but went very early, and the crops wilted and died due to the heat.

We must unite with others and all learn about climate change.”

Female Climate Change Fighters

Watch our new film made using stunning drone footage and powerful interviews with women climate fighters across four continents. You might want to watch this one in full-screen!

To celebrate International Women’s Day and the inspirational women in our lives, we’ve launched a special campaign on Facebook to help support women like Rosario, Langging and Ipaishe through Oxfam’s work worldwide.

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Celebrating the Female Food Heroes of Nigeria

Breakfast in Lagos, the same as the day before, two large slices of boiled yam (a root vegetable) with spicy egg sauce. Surprisingly it actually works as a breakfast and my stomach has been fine. The strong spices make the bland yam edible and I find myself enjoying the combination. Lunch and dinner will be more spicy soups and sauces along with fish or other meat and eaten with various porridges made from cassava and other crops. Nigeria, like the rest of West Africa, has a strong culinary history with a wide variety of dishes prepared from indigenous crops. Nigeria also has the hottest, spiciest food of any country in the world. If you have never tried it and especially if you have blocked sinuses, you need to try proper Nigerian hot pepper soup.

I was in Lagos for the 2014 Female Food Hero awards, a competition that began in Tanzania. These 12 great rural women came from all over Nigeria and were selected from more than 1,200 nominations. They, along with millions of other women, grow the crops, care for the livestock and in the end produce the food that makes up the exciting Nigerian cuisine I was enjoying. These 12 women spent a week together in Lagos in the build-up to the final award ceremony and announcement of the overall winners. In the past two years the awards were held only in certain states among women farmers that Oxfam and partners worked with, but this year for the first time it has become a national competition open to all women involved with primary food production.

During the week, the women joined together in morning exercises with Tony the trainer, who also works as a model and actor. They had training sessions with different people on a range of topics relevant for women and for farmers. They held discussions and went on field trips. To the end, even in celebrating the eventual winners, they demonstrated a unity that this large and complex country sometimes lacks. 

Clockwise from top-left: Catfish at urban fish farm in Lagos – this visit showed how nutritious food can be produced and made into a good business, even with limited space. An exhibition of farmer produce set up during the award ceremony. The 12 finalists of 2014 competition join winners from previous years and a representative of the farmers organisation on a field trip. From left to right: second runner-up Chinasa Asonye; first runner-up Monica Maigari; and Female Food Hero 2014 Marian Buhari. From left to right: Oxfam’s Acting Nigeria Country Director Evelyne Mere; first runner-up Monica Maigari; overall winner Marian Buhari; second runner-up Chinasa Asonye; Oxfam Food and Land Rights Advisor Marc Wegerif. The finalists visit the Tropical Naturals Ltd factory which turns agricultural products like shea butter and honey and turn them into creams and products for export.

These women also underwent health checks and received healthy living advice. Stress management was one of the favourite topics. There are so many stresses that rural women face that they are normally expected to simply cope with themselves. They learnt they have a right to care for themselves and be cared for. There were also meetings with celebrities, actors, singers and women leaders. There were dramas that the women themselves prepared and as well as the hard work, lighter moments and lots of singing. The whole process was filmed and is being produced into a series of TV programmes. 

The field trips included a visit to the inspiring factory of Tropical Naturals Ltd. They take agricultural products like shea butter and honey and turn them into creams and products like the famous Dudu-Oson black soap that is sold in Nigeria and exported. The dynamic Chief Executive Officer, Abiola Ogunrinde, stressed to the women the importance of adding value to all their agricultural products in order to get a greater return as farmers and for the nation.

An urban fish farm showed how nutritious food could be produced and made into a good business, even with limited space in a densely populated urban area. Some of the finalists are already involved with fish farming, others were inspired to start.

Nigeria is now the largest economy in Africa with 180 million people and famous for its oil industry, but agriculture remains a vital part of the economy. Agriculture makes up more than 30% of the economic activity and importantly 70% of all employment. Women provide most of the labour in the sector, but get little recognition and little support, something that these awards are working to change.

By highlighting the importance of women’s contribution to food production and the economy, the Female Food Hero awards help increase public support for women involved with food production. The awards also show the challenges women face, through the stories of the female food heroes themselves, told by themselves. We are asking for the creation of a more supportive environment for women food producers. Look what they have done despite all the challenges they face and imagine what they could do with a more enabling environment. The responses have been good and other women food producers have also been inspired.

On Friday 20th November the hall at the hotel was crowded and sometimes chaotic during an exciting celebration of the Ogbonge (strong, heroic, magnificent) Nigerian Women Food Heroes of 2014. As many speakers stressed, all the finalists are good representatives of the millions of hard-working women who produce most of the food in Nigeria. But everyone also wanted to know who would be the winner and walk away with the largest prizes.

Above, left-right: Some of the produce made by first runner-up Monica Maigari. Previous Female Food Hero award winner Gloria works out in the gym. Tony puts the women farmers through their paces in the gym. 

Guests included government officials, NGOs, farmer organisation representatives and private sector representatives. Jennifer Abuah of OLAM Nigeria Ltd noted that of 10,000 cocoa farmers they work with on sustainable cocoa production, only 500 are women. “We know they are there, but they are not visible”, she said. “Women don’t own their land, they are farming the land that belongs to the men in their families and women are doing so many other things besides farming.”

Karima Babangida, the Head of Gender and Youth in the Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, announced the winners for 2014, but not before she praised the “12 very beautiful hard-working women” who made it to the finals. She also committed the Ministry to providing start-up kits with fish for all the finalists to start or expand fish farming. 

The second runner-up was Chinasa Asonye from Lagos state. A young married woman with three children, she has gone from only cultivating ofada rice to now processing and packaging the rice, for which she gets a much better return. Chinasa leased land from Lagos state government under the Rice for Jobs Initiative and has also branched into fish farming. Last year, she harvested 31 sacks of rice and 5.2 tons of catfish.

The first runner-up was Monica Maigari from Kaduna state. She is a mother of four and farms soybeans, maize, guinea corn, rice, poultry and goats. In 2013, she produced and sold 34 sacks of grains, 130 birds, 360 crates of layers and eight goats.

It was hard to get any picture of the winner, Marian Buhari, when she was announced as people crowded around with cameras to capture the moment. Marian is from Kwara state. She is married with five children and farms cucumbers, maize, cassava, melons, tomatoes, cabbage and fish. She was assisted by the Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development to get started in fish farming with catfish fingerlings (young fish) and two bags of fish feed. Now in 2014, she harvested over 150 tons of produce. Like Chinasa, she had also relied on renting other people’s land for her production.

The best speakers of the day were the women farmers themselves. The past winners shared how much the awards had meant to them, including their activities as ambassadors for women farmers that had taken them to national events and international events in the United States and African Union meetings in Ethiopia. This year’s finalists called for women to get better access to inputs, machinery, finance and land with secure rights. 

As the finalists often chanted:

Ogbonge Women, Our Future! Ogbonge Women, Our Farmers! Ogbonge Women, Our Nigeria!

Marc Wegerif is a South African, currently based in Tanzania, who has worked on development and human rights issues in a range of organisations for over 25 years and has a Masters in Land and Agrarian Studies from the University of the Western Cape. Marc has focused on land rights issues for much of his professional life and is currently Food and Land Rights Advisor with Oxfam Ireland. In this role Marc is involved with international advocacy and running several multi-country projects. He is married with two daughters. This blog is a personal reflection and the views expressed are not necessarily those of Oxfam. 

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By 2016 the top 1% will be richer than the rest of the world combined

High up in the Alps, world leaders will later this week make their annual pilgrimage to the Swiss resort of Davos for the World Economic Forum annual meeting.
 
The threat posed by growing inequality – one acknowledged by a diversity of attendees – will again be one of the main talking points at the invite-only event where politicians rub shoulders with business leaders, social entrepreneurs, technology innovator, philanthropists, media and NGOs. 
 
The summit last year identified economic inequality as a major risk to human progress, while Oxfam reported that just 85 people owned as much wealth as the poorest 50 per cent – or 3.5 billion people. 
 
Our new research paper published today shows that shows inequality is getting even worse – the exclusive club has now shrunk to just 80 people, a dramatic fall from 388 people in 2010.
 
 
Other key findings from the report – entitled Wealth: Having it all and wanting more – include: 
 
  • The richest 1 per cent have seen their share of global wealth increase from 44 per cent in 2009 to 48 per cent in 2014 
  • At this rate the richest 1% will own more than 50 per cent of global wealth in 2016. 
  • Almost all of the remaining 52% of global wealth is owned by the richest 20%. 
  • This leaves just 5.5%  of the global wealth for the remaining 80% of people in the world
  • The wealth of the richest 80 people doubled in cash terms between 2009-14.
  • More than a third of the 1,645 billionaires listed by Forbes inherited some or all of their riches.
 
This explosion in inequality is holding back the fight against global poverty at a time when 1 in 9 people do not have enough to eat and more than a billion people still live on less than $1.25 (€1.07/82p)-a-day. 
 
Inequality is not inevitable – it is the result of policy choices. There are solutions, ones we will be highlighting at the Davos meeting, which Oxfam International Executive Director Winnie Byanyima will co-chair.
 
 
Above: A twice-weekly vegetable market in the town of Bara Gaon, India. Inequality is rising at a time when 1 in 9 people do not have enough to eat and more than a billion people still live on less than $1.25 (€1.07/82p)-a-day. Photo: Tom Pietrasik / Oxfam
 
We propose a seven-point plan to tackle inequality:
 
  • Clamp down on tax dodging by corporations and rich individuals 
  • Invest in universal, free public services such as health and education
  • Share the tax burden fairly, shifting taxation from labour and consumption towards capital and wealth
  • Introduce minimum wages and move towards a living wage for all workers
  • Introduce equal pay legislation and promote economic policies to give women a fair deal
  • Ensure adequate safety-nets for the poorest, including a minimum income guarantee
  • Agree a global goal to tackle inequality.
 
 
Above: Zambia is one of the world’s fastest-growing economies yet Barbara Chinyeu is living in poverty, like three-quarters of the population. While Barbara struggles to grow vegetables to support her family and walks four hours every day just to collect water, multinational mining companies make huge amounts of money in her country. These giant corporations use international tax rules to avoid paying their fair share, meaning that families like Barbara’s lose out. "We are better off if we are all at the same level... If we were all equal, we could all have control of our own affairs." Photo: Abbie Trayler-Smith / Oxfam
 
Imagine the impact this could have. Cleaning up the toxic global tax system, to take one example, would give governments all over the world the vital revenues they have been deprived to invest in public services like health and education that can both help to fight poverty and reduce inequality. 
 
For example, the EU could receive an annual boost of €120/£100 billion in public money if Europe clamped down on tax dodging. €120/£100 billion is almost twice the annual global aid budget and this much cash could save the lives of 350,000 children under the age of five every year.
 
2015 presents a historic opportunity for world leaders to set a roadmap to eradicate extreme poverty and improve prospects for all citizens with the clock ticking for major decisions on the new UN development goals later this year. 
 
If we get it right, this generation can solve one of the major global challenges of our time and help people escape the stranglehold which keeps them in poverty.
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Rigged rules that create inequality can be changed

Extracted from address given at a joint event hosted by Oxfam Ireland, the Institute for International and European Affairs (IIEA) and Irish Aid at the IIEA in Dublin on Thursday, November 27th. The theme of the discussion was 'Inequality: The defining challenge of our time'. The Millennium Development Goals were signed in 2000 with the intention of making substantial progress on human development by the year 2015.

From left to right: Michael Gaffey, Director General, Irish Aid; Cormac Lucey, Chartered Accountant and Lecturer in Finance at UCD, IMI and Chartered Accountants Ireland; Dearbhail McDonald, Associate Editor and Legal Editor of the Irish Independent; Alison O’Connor, Irish Examiner; Jim Clarken, CEO, Oxfam Ireland; Winnie Byanyima, Executive Director, Oxfam International; Dr Colm O’Reardon, Economist and former Government Advisor at the inequality debate at the Institute of International and European Affairs in Dublin. Mark Stedman/Photocall Ireland

2015 is almost upon us and next September, world leaders will be reflecting on the fact that during that period:

  • Extreme poverty was reduced by 50%
  • 90% of all children are now attending primary school
  • Maternal mortality has been reduced by 50%
  • We have reached the Millennium Development Goal target in relation to the number of people who have access to safe sanitation
  • We have made good progress on the fight against major killer diseases such as HIV and AIDS, TB and malaria
  • We are very slowly winning the fight against extreme poverty.

However, these successes and our realistic ambition to end extreme poverty by 2030 and to advance many other areas of human development during this next period are deeply threatened by the extreme and rising inequality.

The emergence of some parts of the world from what appears to be extreme poverty is heavily masked by the fact that wealthy elites in poor and middle income countries have become extremely wealthy whilst poor people have remained stuck in poverty.

Two countries that have emerged as economic powerhouses (albeit of differing scales and on different trajectories) in recent years are India and Brazil. In the past 20 years, India has emerged as one of the most important economies on the planet. Within the next couple of years, it will have more billionaires than the US and it has its own space programme. Yet 400 million Indian citizens live in extreme poverty. For most, the economic miracle has had little or no impact.

Brazil has also emerged as a global power with tremendous economic success. But it is a country where the bottom half did not get left behind – or certainly not to the same extent. The main reason why India is so unequal while Brazil is reducing inequality among its citizens is simple – government policy.

Brazil had a very focused investment in health, education and a social protection floor to protect people on the bottom rung, where India did not. The trajectory for most Brazilians is now one where optimism and hope for a better life is a reality. The same cannot be said for 400 million Indians.

Emerging from the financial crisis, the global economy is slowly strengthening and growing. Ireland too is currently emerging from the worst economic crisis in living memory. No part of society here has been spared from the impact of this but we know that those most well off were least affected.

According to Social Justice Ireland Budget Review 2015, more than 750,000 people live in poverty (including one in five children) and Budget 2015 has widened the rich/poor gap in Ireland by €499 per year.

Too much of today’s global growth is neither inclusive nor sustainable. Governments, institutions and corporations have a collective responsibility to tackle extreme inequality.

And the right policy choices are crucial in changing the tide and allowing many more millions of people to lift themselves out of poverty instead of condemning future generations to it.

Above: Leonard Kufeketa (39), a brush seller, stands in front of Ferarri in Parkhurst, an expensive suburb of Johannesburg. “Things are changing in South Africa for the worst,” he says. “The public schools are no good. Those in the government, they are very rich, the rest of us are poor.” South Africa is one of the most unequal societies in the world. Zed Nelson/Oxfam

Oxfam’s new report, Even it Up: Time to end extreme inequality, shows the scale of the problem of extreme economic inequality, and reveals the multiple dangers it poses to people everywhere.

Most importantly, the report highlights some of the concrete steps that can be taken to change things. So, let’s talk about the solutions.

These measures are:

1. Support a global goal to end extreme economic inequality in every country by 2030. (The effect of curbing inequality would be as dramatic as would be the failure to act. In India, for example, halting the recent increase in inequality could enable 90 million more people escape extreme poverty by 2019).

2. Act decisively on the toxic global taxation system which has been denying citizens in developing countries and in this part of the world the resource which is duly theirs.

3. Aim to achieve universal free public services by 2020. People’s right to free public health and education should be a cornerstone of policy and investment in health and education makes a huge impact on the lives of poorer people.

4. Pay workers a living wage instead of minimum wage (a fair amount to allow them to live rather than just survive) and close the income inequality gap.

5. Promote women’s economic equality and women’s rights (Women in many countries won’t be paid as much as men for another 75 years) and within that focus on a woman’s right to live free from violence.

6. Implement a universal social protection floor.

7. Target development finance at reducing inequality and poverty.

While all these measures deserve a full debate, I’d like to particularly focus on taxation as a key tool.

There is evidence that globally our economic system is set up to facilitate tax dodging by multinationals and wealthy individuals.

Governments around the world are losing €120 billion in revenue each year, according to a 2013 Oxfam study, putting more pressure on their finances as they look to balance their budgets by hitting ordinary citizens with higher taxes.

The tax gap for developing countries – the amount of unpaid tax liability of companies – is estimated at $104bn every year, including profits shifted in and out of tax havens.

Until the rules are changed and there is a fairer global governance of tax matters, tax dodging will continue to drain public budgets and undermine the ability of governments to tackle inequality.

To give a specific example, the world is now grappling with the Ebola crisis. Liberia is one of the worst affected countries. Liberia has 51 doctors for its entire population. This is a country the same size as Ireland. If Liberia received what it is entitled to it would be much better equipped to handle this crisis.

Above: Children learn about the importance of hand-washing training through an Oxfam Ebola programme in Liberia where there are only 51 doctors for a population of 4.2 million people. Pablo Tosco/Oxfam

The economic inequality demonstrated in Liberia also highlights the fact that the world’s poorest citizens are also the world’s most vulnerable citizens – without the resilience and support systems to be able to cope with crisis. Oxfam sees evidence of this in every emergency response we carry out – responding to disasters costs a lot more than preventing them in the first place. Reducing inequality would reduce the need for support when a disaster strikes.

Inequality is not inevitable – it’s the result of years of rigged rules, like rigged tax rules that allow the richest people and corporations to avoid paying their fair share.

But these rules can be changed in favour of the many.

There is a lot to do. Tonight, one in every seven of us sharing this planet will go to bed hungry. Tomorrow morning, there will be 60 million children of primary school age who won’t be going to school. It is not so long ago that people across Ireland were in a similar position.

The answer is justice: fair use of the world’s natural resources; a global economy that reduces inequality; a world that does not discriminate against women or minorities.

Inequality and sustainability are unifying global concerns. People across all walks of life, across the political spectrum, and even the richest people on earth are close to agreement that major change is needed.

So we have a shared agenda. Now what's needed is a shared plan of action. If we don’t take action fast, we will soon live in a world where equal opportunity is just a dream.

Jim Clarken is Chief Executive of Oxfam Ireland

Jim Clarken on inequality

RTE’s Morning Ireland interview with Jim Clarken on inequality and Lux Leaks

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