Womens Rights

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Your Kindness Helps Survivors Overcome Trauma: Thank You For Enabling Recovery in Cox’s Bazar

Photo: Maruf Hasan / Oxfam

August 2017 saw over one million Rohingya people flee Myanmar for the relative safety of Bangladesh, during one of the largest exoduses the world has ever seen. Ethnic people were killed. Unspeakable abuses took place. Families were torn apart. Yet, the Rohingya people found strength to carry on. Oxfam’s supporters were there from the start, immediately asked what they could do to help.

Initial projects involved a massive scaling up of infrastructure to accommodate such large crowds. Providing sufficient clean drinking water and hygienic living conditions became a challenge, but one you willingly overcame.

There have been many more helpful endeavours and successes along the way. One year after the initial camp set-up, a survey was taken by Oxfam and our partners to assess if all needs were being met.

The most prominent issues noted were that:

  • ⅓ of women did not feel safe or comfortable going to collect water or using toilets and shower cubicles – many of which lack a roof and a lockable door.
  • ½ of women and ¾ of adolescent girls surveyed said they didn’t have what they needed to manage their periods, including a female-only place to wash sanitary cloths without embarrassment.
Photo: Maruf Hasan / Oxfam

In order to help tackle these issues, Oxfam worked with Bangladeshi architect Nuha Anoor Pabony, 24, from Dhaka. Nuha engaged Rohingya women and girls in design workshops, to incorporate their feedback directly. Her final plans included the use of screens to increase privacy, storage areas for menstruation products and the construction of additional single sex toilet facilities.

Getting feedback on the designs, Nuha said: “I was nervous when we went to show the community the design.  When I showed the women the model, the oldest lady in the room took it in her hand and took a close look for a few seconds. Then she looked at me and nodded her head positively and with a big smile. That’s when I got my answer that I might have done something right! That moment will stay with me for a long time.

Now five years on, the work isn’t over. People have been displaced and lacked certainty for so long. There is no end in sight, and times are tense. There is a huge need for emotional support. Most notably for women and adolescent girls.

Alongside more female-centric camp facilities. Two specialised women’s centre have been created by Razia Sultana, an international human-rights activist, lawyer, teacher, and researcher. But your generosity is what supports one of these essential centres.

Photos: Fabeha Monir / Oxfam

At the centres, women like Sofika can learn to read and write and make items like clothing and fishing nets to sell.  They also engage in trauma-recovery activities, get medical care and learn about their rights. Perhaps most importantly, these centres give women a chance to break out of the relative isolation of their homes and make friends.

This gift of friendship is so precious for these women who have endured so much – and it is these friendships that help them cope with the struggle of daily life. Five years after her trauma, and one year after joining programmes at the centre and forming friendships - Sofika has recovered from anxiety and depression. She has managed to heal, to create friendships and to find joy at the world’s largest refugee camp.

Photo: Mutasim Billah / Oxfam

There have been many troubles along the way in the camp – from monsoon rains causing flooding and mudslides, to the deadly fires that swept through four of the camps in 2021.

But again, our supporters have always been there to provide emergency supplies, to support essential projects and after all that, to ask what more can be done. Your steadfast commitment to provide aid during crises is inspirational.

A year in pictures what we accomplished together in 2021

Pascaline, public health officer, shows the community at the Mwaka IDP site, DRC, how to use a new handwashing station that can be quickly installed in a variety of emergency settings. Photo: Arlette Bashizi/Oxfam

2021. So much continuing turbulation and uncertainty for everyone. A year – another one – when the need for us all to stand up and stand together, to help others, has been so very difficult to do. But a year – another one – when time after time, across the world in big ways and small, the power of people to organize, reach out and help one another prevailed – inevitable, vital, positive and affirming – again and again.


End of Year 2021

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Our supporters and partners reached over 25 million people last year through Oxfam’s humanitarian and programmatic work, more than 14 million of them directly from our Covid-related responses. With your support, we worked with 4128 partner agencies and implemented 1843 projects worldwide. Thank you. We hope all of our supporters, partners, staff, the people living in the communities across the world, can take a moment of reflection and pride in this snapshot of stories that hint of the work we accomplished together to make a real difference in many millions of people’s lives in 2021.
Photo: Roanna Rahman/Oxfam

In India, we raced against time to protect the most vulnerable from Covid-19.

When the second wave of COVID-19 hit India in late April, it created a public health crisis that left hospitals overwhelmed and people literally dying in the streets. In less than a month, the country saw more than 100,000 deaths, bringing the total death toll to more than 300,000 – the third highest in the world behind the United States and Brazil. To help government hospitals cope with this deadly second wave, Oxfam procured and delivered medical equipment such as oxygen generators, thermometers and oxygen tanks, beds, and personal protective equipment (PPE) kits for frontline health workers. We also assisted people who have lost their means of livelihood and helped migrant workers stranded far from home with no work, money or food during lockdowns.
Photo: Kaff Media/Oxfam

In Yemen, we worked tirelessly to provide relief to the most affected.

Salem* and his son Omar* (name changed) had been displaced four times before moving to Alswidan Camp in Marib, Yemen, where they now live with five other members of the family in a tiny tent. Each time they would leave behind everything and walk for days to reach their next safe location. Omar was born in 2015, the year the war in Yemen started – war is all he has ever known. Conflict continued for a sixth year in Yemen, devastating livelihoods and leaving 13.5 million people suffering from acute hunger. Almost 70 percent of the population urgently need humanitarian assistance. Oxfam is providing clean water and hygiene items to help people avoid cholera and COVID-19, cash to help them buy food, and support for earning a living through agriculture and small businesses.
Photo: Hosam Salem/Oxfam

In Gaza, we helped Palestinians rebuild and recover from violence.

Abdelsamad Alqanou, Oxfam Water and Sanitation officer, is following the implementation of water and sewage maintenance work in a neighbourhood in Beit Lahia, northern Gaza. After 11 days of intense bombardment over the Gaza Strip, a ceasefire was called on the 21st of May. According to the Ministry of Health, 242 Palestinians were killed, and 1,900 were injured. Israeli attacks caused severe damages to residential and commercial buildings, schools, and infrastructure, including roads, electricity networks, water installations and agricultural lands. Over 2,500 people have been made homeless due to the destruction of their homes. To meet the urgent needs, Oxfam provided water and sanitation services with spare parts for operation and maintenance during emergencies, including water and sewage pipes, valves, pumps, filters, and oil.
Photo: Shaikh Ashraf Ali/Oxfam

In Bangladesh, we strove to promote health and safety across the refugee camps.

In July, several days of heavy monsoon rain in Southeast Bangladesh led to severe flooding and landslides in the Cox’s Bazar refugee camps. Rainwater displaced families and inundated roads and bridges, shelters, and critical infrastructure – heightening the risk of water-borne illness.

Impacted communities were surrounded by water—but none of it was safe to drink. The flooding occurred as Bangladesh was logging a record spike in Covid-19 cases – placing refugees, host communities, and responders at heightened risk from the virus.

With our partners, we provided critical repairs to water and sanitation facilities, distributed jerry cans of emergency drinking water and water purification tablets, and shared essential health awareness information to keep refugees safe in the crisis. (Photo: Shaikh Ashraf Ali/Oxfam)

Photo: Mustafa Osman/Oxfam

In South Sudan, we protected girls’ education from the pandemic impacts.

Winnie (name changed), 17, is a graduate student in Oxfam’s Education for Life-program in Juba, South Sudan. A lot of young girls in her area have left school during the lockdown, but with Oxfam’s support, many have been able to return. “I knew that I would eventually go back to school after the lockdown. My biggest dream is to become a lawyer, to solve the issues in my society,” says Winnie.

Women and girls have been the most severely affected by conflict, COVID-19, and climate change in South Sudan. The pandemic and resulting closure of schools in March 2020 exacerbated many of the challenges they face in pursuing an education, like early and forced marriage, teen pregnancy and gender-based violence.

Photo: Zaid Al-Bayati/Oxfam

In Iraq, we supported families with cash assistance and grants to start businesses.

It is four years since the city of Mosul and its environs were returned from ISIS control to that of the Government of Iraq.  Thousands of families, who had fled the violence and lived in camps, are now returning. They join others living among destroyed houses, lacking access to healthcare, education, and water. The challenges are immense. We have been supporting people of Mosul with cash assistance, grants to start businesses, repairs to schools and access to water.

Farah (name changed) started her own hair salon after the liberation of the city. It is the main income now for her and her family. “After ISIS everything changed. I gained more independence as now our society has finally realized that women can provide not only for themselves but for their kids and whole family”, she said.

Photo: Arlene Bax/Oxfam

In Vanuatu, we used blockchain technology to revolutionize humanitarian aid.

In times of crisis, traditional aid distributions of food, shelter and other emergency supplies are not always the best or most efficient way to provide relief. Oxfam is one of the first humanitarian organisations to use blockchain technology for cash transfer programming, to deliver emergency cash in a faster, cheaper and more transparent fashion than ever before.

The UnBlocked Cash solution consists of the e-voucher “tap-and-pay” cards used by beneficiaries, a smartphone app through which vendors receive the payments, and an online platform where NGOs like Oxfam can monitor transactions remotely and in real-time.

After a ground-breaking pilot in Vanuatu, we scaled the project to distribute cash and voucher assistance to over 35,000 beneficiaries affected by the Category 5 Cyclone Harold and COVID-19. 

Photo: Juanito Bantong/Oxfam

In the Philippines, we sowed the seeds of climate resiliency.

When devastating Typhoon Goni barreled across the Philippines November 2020, it came at the worst possible time - rice harvest season – and while the region was still reeling from the effects of Typhoon Quinta a week before. These typhoons are a common occurrence in the country. They have grown in severity and frequency and are in large part due to climate change. Every time, it takes months for farmers to recover. 

After Typhoon Goni, Rice Watch Action Network (RWAN) offered community leaders in Carangcang village to help them start growing vegetables hydroponically (without soil) through a project funded by Oxfam. Instead of distributing seeds, RWAN and Oxfam distributed seedlings. This way, not only would the community have seeds, but they also had the ability to grow plants that could supply seeds to other farmers. 

Photo: Samuel Turpin/Oxfam

In Burkina Faso, we helped farmers grow food in a hot and dry climate.

Imagine growing vegetables in temperatures approaching 50 degrees with recurrent droughts. In Burkina Faso, where farmers struggle to survive the effects of climate change, it is a matter of survival for much of the population that depends on agriculture for their food. “All my life I have been farming," says Alizeta Sawadogo, 55, “I used to grow cereals. But it rains less and less, and the dry season is getting longer and hotter. Yields are getting lower and lower.”

With the support of Oxfam and local partner ATAD, Alizeta joined a group of 50 vulnerable and landless women in a collective farm of two hectares, where she learned about climate change adaptation. For Alizeta, it is an opportunity to reinvent herself: “I have learned to produce organic food using environmentally friendly techniques,” she says. “I can feed my family all year round.” 

Photo: Tatiana Cardeal/Oxfam

In Brazil, we revealed labour exploitation in coffee farms.

Inequality in the food system has never been higher. Despite the food industry generating revenue of trillions of dollars annually the vast numbers of people who go to bed hungry are themselves food producers or agricultural workers. Covid-19 has sharpened these inequalities and pushed many food workers and farmers in the Global South into greater poverty.

FELIPE NAME CHANGED, 33, lives in the north of the state of Minas Gerais, where he earns his living from temporary jobs. With the pandemic, opportunities became scarce. He worked in slavery-like conditions on a coffee farm in the south of the state. He and a colleague harvested about 2.5 tons of coffee a day and received no salary. They drank contaminated water, slept on the floor and received no equipment to protect themselves from Covid-19.

Photo: Andy Aitchison/Oxfam

In cities across the world, we marched for climate justice.

Climate change has no borders and affects us all. It especially hurts those in poorer countries, which are also the countries that contribute the least to it. The next decade is critical to putting us onto a safer track. We only have eight years left to turn the tides and prevent a catastrophic global temperature rise.

As world leaders gathered at COP26 in Glasgow, we joined the World Climate March to pressure them to act now on the climate crisis. On 6th of November, the Global Day of Action saw thousands of people marching for climate justice in cities and towns across the world. In Glasgow and London our march brought the voices of thousands of activists, particularly the most affected people and areas, to the streets via video screens, ad-bikes and pedicabs.

30 years and counting: 16 Days of Activism Against Gender-Based Violence even more important now in our COVID-19 world

Nancy and her son sought urgent refuge at Oxfam partner, Lifeline, a community-based, non-government, organisation based in Papua New Guinea, after her husband assaulted her. Once she recovered, Nancy received counselling and help from Lifeline, who engaged a lawyer and began working on her case to obtain a protection order for her. Photo: Patrick Moran/Oxfam

Women, girls, trans and non-binary people have always faced the horrific and sometimes lethal consequences of gender-based violence in our societies, throughout history, in all countries, and in all walks of life. Even before the pandemic, in 2018 alone, 245 million women and girls were subjected to sexual and/or physical violence by an intimate partner. That is more than all the people who contracted Covid-19 (confirmed cases) in the last 12 months.

But lockdowns have made gender-based violence spiral. Millions of people became trapped at home with their abusers, in situations of heightened economic and emotional tension. Even when more people moved into online spaces, the increased violence, bullying and harassment followed them there.

At the onset of the pandemic, activists and frontline workers sounded the alarm about the scale of the issue. Domestic and gender-based violence helplines recorded an increase in the number of calls from survivors seeking help. In ten countries including Argentina, Colombia, Tunisia, China, Somalia, South Africa, UK, Cyprus, Italy, and Malaysia the surge in the number of calls to GBV/domestic violence helplines showed an increase of 25% -111%.

We need to make the world safer for women, girls, and LGBTQI+

However, governments have not done enough to tackle GBV. Women's rights organisations have had their budgets cut. The collection of GBV data – vital information upon which to build proper and adequately funded global responses – remains woefully inadequate. .

This year marks the 30-year anniversary of “16 Days of Activism” against GBV since activists started it at the inaugural Centre for Women’s Global Leadership in 1991. This annual commemoration kicks off every November 25th to December 10th to create awareness about GBV worldwide. This year donors, governments, and individuals must reflect on the impact that the pandemic has had on GBV and commit to real actions to end GBV.

The Covid-19 pandemic has shown that governments can take extraordinary measures to protect their citizens and respond to deadly crises when spurred to action. We need to see more of this kind of effort to address GBV in their Covid-19 response and recovery plans. We need to be deliberate about making the world safer for women, girls, and LGBTQI+ people. Let’s act now!

Here are five brilliant questions you asked about our recent report and our work on gender rights and justice.

A young woman follows a literacy class at the Women’s Home in Bria, in the heart of the Central African Republic, which offers education to survivors of violence. Photo: Aurélie Godet/Oxfam

1. What do you mean when you talk about gender-based violence?

Gender-based violence is any act of physical, psychological, sexual, or economic violence directed against a person, or a group based on their gender, sex or non-conformity to gender norms and stereotypes. It does not only affect women and girls but can be directed at anyone based on these criteria. Trans and non-binary people are affected by GBV and this is often overlooked.

2. Are you saying that we shouldn't focus on the Covid-19 pandemic but on GBV instead?

No. We’re saying that as the world works toward a Covid-19 response and recovery, we must also make that a safer post-Covid recovery – and that means using this opportunity to prioritise gender-based safety and security.

Covid-19 has wreaked havoc on all our lives. This global health emergency needs decisive action and investments. Everybody regardless of where they are in the world need to have access to safe and effective vaccines. There is no question that the world needs to act now to stop the Covid-19 pandemic.

However, as our report shows, gender-based violence is affecting hundreds of millions of people with devastating impacts on the health and wellbeing of the survivors, with grave consequences that often lead to death. This is a severe pandemic in numbers and impact that needs to be tackled with urgency. We don't have another 30 years to wait until everyone can live safe and free of violence. This is urgent too!

3. GBV has existed for years, how would you be able to change it and, if it is possible, why is nobody doing it?

Gender-based violence is not a natural occurrence. As it is made, so it can be unmade. It is the result of patriarchal structures and unequal power distribution. In the 30 years since the 16 Days of Activism Against Gender-Based Violence started we have done much to highlight the problem, and provide solidarity with survivors and more understanding of the issue. But we are still not close to eliminating the violence itself. Instead, there has been a surge of violence during the pandemic which shows it is a deeply rooted problem within patriarchal structures and power imbalances that target women and LGBTQI people in excluding them from decision making.

If we are serious about ending gender-based violence, we need to change harmful social norms – that means everyone must get involved. It means that governments must invest in the prevention and response to GBV. It also means that governments must collect quality and better gender-disaggregated data to respond to the GBV pandemic adequately. Every response to the Covid-19 pandemic needs to include efforts to achieve gender justice. A recovery from Covid-19 is possible if the governments implemented gender-just policies and measures.

4. What is Oxfam doing to end GBV?

Oxfam has prioritised to fight for gender justice and against any form of violence toward women, and girls and LGBTQIA+ people. We believe we cannot have a just society unless women, girls, and LGBTQIA+ people, have full agency over their lives. We work to challenge harmful social norms and belief systems, including gender-transformative education. Oxfam advocates for policies and practices that protect the equal rights of women, girls, and those who suffer discrimination based on gender or sex. We equally value and recognise women’s leadership in different spheres of life. We work with over 750 women’s groups and partners in 40 countries to expose and change the patriarchal practices that prevent women from realising their rights.

5. How is Oxfam holding itself accountable?

We fully acknowledge our own history in failing to support and protect survivors of GBV and not holding ourselves accountable for violence against women perpetrated by former staff. We committed to fix these failings and we invited external scrutiny of our new and improved policies and procedures. We have increased staff and funding for safeguarding, set up a global database for references to make it harder for wrongdoers to move across the sector, and appointed an independent commission to review our culture and practices to make further improvements. Through our campaigns, programming, and research we work in solidarity with survivors and address the harms we have caused. We are on a journey and still always have more to do in changing our culture and improving our systems – but we are committed to do so.

Say Enough: Why dismantling patriarchal norms is more important than ever this International Women's Day

By Victoria Stetsko, Rebecca Shadwick and Alejandra Aguilar of Oxfam’s Enough! campaign

5 March 2021

The Covid-19 pandemic has been called “the great equalizer”.

However, the past 12 months made it clear that the most excluded, oppressed, and vulnerable groups, such as girls and women in all their diversity, have been disproportionately affected by its impact. How can we build a more equal and resilient world? As we prepare to mark International Women’s Day this Monday, 8 March, here are some lessons the Enough team has learnt from four years of campaigning on social norm change to end gender-based violence. Spoiler alert: we need to dismantle patriarchal norms.

We’ve had many opportunities to listen to feminist activists from over 30 countries while co-creating and implementing the Enough! campaign together. For over four years, we’ve been working to mobilise alongside young people who want to live in societies free from gender-based violence (GBV), to support them to take bold steps against the patriarchal norms that underpin such violence. The new reality induced by the pandemic demonstrates the relevance of this collaboration.




The gendered effects of the pandemic were immediately evident. Reports of GBV surged in many countries which introduced lockdowns. Worldwide, women were the first to lose their jobs, shoulder the increased responsibilities of unpaid care work, and encounter restricted access to sexual and reproductive health services.


Those facing discrimination due to their age, race, ethnicity, gender, sexuality, health conditions and migration status prior to the pandemic saw the risks and impact of social and economic exclusion multiplied.

While the adverse effect on girls and women is alarming, the often-total lack of consideration for their vulnerabilities in most countries’ Covid-responses is shocking. According to UNDP’s Covid-19 Gender Response Tracker, less than 15 percent of countries introduced measures to tackle violence against women and girls and to support women who faced economic insecurity. But women are finding other ways of making themselves heard.  In 2020, we saw a surge in feminist protests for access to safe abortions, livelihoods, political participation and ending police brutality in Poland, Turkey, Nigeria, Argentina and India. When patriarchy deprives women of their voices, they rise. 

Listening to feminist activists and amplifying their voices have been at the core of the Enough campaign. Here are just some of the lessons we’ve learnt through this global collaboration:

Making the invisible visible

The World Health Organisation asks countries to collect the gender-disaggregated data on the effects of Covid-19 on men and women, because data makes the invisible visible. Similarly, we’ve been exploring how social belief systems affect the prevalence of GBV. The results of the research we led in 12 Latin American countries highlight eight key patriarchal norms which contribute to the region’s high GBV rates. In Russia, Bolivia and the Philippines, campaigners documented social experiments which test norms and attitudes towards survivors of violence. Data helps expose the systemic nature of social problems and offers pathways to solutions. That’s why even after the lockdowns hit, we continued to collect it.

Nothing about us without us

The national chapters of the Enough! campaign have been co-created and co-led by women and young people. “Evoluciona” campaign in Cuba partnered with the National Federation of Cuban Women, and “ACTÚA Detén la violencia” in Bolivia was co-designed by 15 local youth organisations. Creating spaces for the leadership of youth and feminist organisations fosters ownership and authenticity of the campaign and allows them to decide on the methods for delivering key messages and addressing the identified patriarchal norm change. In Bolivia, the campaign featured meme competitions and campaigning bootcamps; in China, feminist skits – and in Russia, social media marathons. 

The power of storytelling

The stories we tell shape our society and how it functions. From its inception, the Enough! campaign included artists in its design and roll-out for this reason. Street art, poetry, cinema, dance, theatre, illustration, and music help us imagine the future without patriarchy and the violence it sustains and thrives in. During the 16 Days of Activism Against Gender-Based Violence in 2019, the “Say Enough Cypher” brought together poets, spoken word artists and musicians to speak out against the widespread social tolerance of GBV. Last year, the pandemic prompted us to celebrate feminist resilience and solidarity through recipes to #LockdownPatriarchy.

In Oxfam’s Global Strategy for 2020-2030, it names patriarchy as one of the systems of oppression we must dismantle to eliminate extreme inequality. As the pandemic continues to reveal, patriarchy is not an issue that only feminists have to deal with – it must be tackled by everyone. We wanted to share the incredible work and lessons we've learned, in the hopes that others will use it to say Enough to GBV. We've compiled what we've learned into a progress report, which is available here. For more updates, follow @SayEnoughCampaign and @Oxfam on social.

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A story of resilience on International Women’s Day 2021: The Kenyan activist protecting women and girls amid the COVID-19 pandemic

This is a production of the Coalition for Grassroots Human Rights Defenders Kenya (CGHRD Kenya). This publication was supported and funded by the Rosa Luxemburg Foundation, Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania.

8 March 2021

My name is Editar Adhiambo Ochieng. I’m a mother and woman rights defender.

I’m the founder and CEO of the Feminist for Peace, Rights and Justice Centre (FPRJC), located in the heart of Kibera – the largest slum in Nairobi, Kenya. The FPRJC is a feminist-oriented organisation that focuses on the proactive leadership of young women in the society in addressing issues on sexual- and gender-based violence (GBV).

Editar Adhiambo Ochieng, founder and CEO of the Feminist for Peace, Rights and Justice Centre. Photo: Mercy Mumo/Vivian Kiarie

Our organisation helps women realise their full potential and also get fair justice and equal opportunities in the society. People who have suffered the most in the community are women. They experience violence, depression and other abuse on a daily basis. It is a persisting challenge that we must address and eradicate.

During the first months of the Covid-19 pandemic, I worked long hours in the community to ensure the safety for women and girls. This meant I had to be away from my family for endless hours. It was a challenging time.

We were dealing with a strange pandemic with catastrophic consequences. We just did not know how bad the devastating impact was going to be on our lives and livelihood but we had to keep going. When I realised that the ravages of Covid-19 were going to last longer than anticipated, I was overcome with fear.

The future of my work and service to the community of Kibera now looked uncertain and grim. But as a voice for the voiceless, I could not just sit there and do nothing. Instead, I mobilised my team of community human rights defenders for some much-needed interventions amid the pandemic.

This meant that I had to stay away from my family and two children. I stayed for about 60 days without seeing them which made me depressed. I stayed away from home because as I worked with the community, I was afraid I would infect my children and family with the disease.

We were also confronted by the reality of the rising cases of domestic violence as lockdown regulations were implemented. I was interacting with almost everyone in my community. I had to take my children away from Kibera because I felt like I would be affecting them every day in a different way since I was dealing with so many different situations at a go.

The only thing that gave me hope was the constant phone communication with my children, family and close friends. My 11-year-old daughter kept on encouraging me, giving me the motivation that I needed to strengthen my resilience. When you are drowning in difficulties and a child tells you, 'Be strong mama, it will be okay.' This is the best motivation you need.

Covid-19 has affected me and the community very negatively. Women and girls were going through sexual and domestic violence; some women had to seek unsafe abortions; boys were being sexually abused, and people from different parts of the world were experiencing police brutality.

I have been so heartbroken from seeing people from my community suffer. Most hospital facilities were closed and many girls and women could not access contraceptives. That led to so many unwanted pregnancies and unsafe abortions. Many young women developed complications and others lost their lives in the process.

Editar Adhiambo Ochieng out meeting women in the community in Kibera. Photo: Mercy Mumo/Vivian Kiarie

Our office has a small space where we host young women and girls in distress who have been through rape and domestic violence as we try to deal with the authorities. Some women end up leaving their homes and that leads to more broken families in the community. Throughout this period, this small space was full.

Being an activist and a human rights defender in a community that’s so vulnerable to all kinds of abuse is not easy. Not everyone will accept and appreciate what you do. You must persist nonetheless to focus on the goal of offering service to the wellbeing of women and girls.

This pandemic has really taught me a lot. For instance, I have learned that not everyone will be happy when your purpose in life is to help others and ensure their wellbeing. For us as a foundation, every time and any time is women power!

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The Digital World - Experiences and insights from feminists in MENA

November 25th is International Day for the Elimination of Violence Against Women and Girls. This year, it comes one week after hundreds of thousands of intimate images of Irish women were released online without their consent or knowledge.


All types of violence practised offline are reflected online as yet another patriarchal space.

~ Hayat Mershad, Lebanon

Since early 2000, digital technologies have had continuously and rapidly changing implications for the way the world around us works. Technology has transformed how we interact socially, engage in public debates and political discourse, and organise and mobilise for social change – providing space and tools for innovation and new ways of working.

Since the pandemic halted our “normal” way of life, the use of digital platforms has considerably intensified, and so to have the risks for women using these platforms.

To delve into this a little deeper, we interviewed young feminist activists from the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) to highlight the experiences and aspirations of young women and feminist activists in the MENA region around digital spaces, safety, and rights.


Whenever women are more visible, they pay the price.

~ Maya Ammar, Lebanon

For context, the MENA region is characterised by deeply embedded patriarchal social norms and oppressive authoritarian regimes.

Women are confined to roles prescribed by those norms, their personal freedoms are constrained, and their participation in public spaces is restricted. So, digital platforms have emerged as an alternative space for women to overcome these restrictions, by facilitating their engagement in public debates and their ability to voice their demands and to have a stronger collective voice.

However, despite providing an alternative, the digital space reflects, or mirrors, the patriarchal social norms of the offline world that normalise violence and protect perpetrators. The digital space has also intensified existing inequalities and harmful norms and practices during the COVID-19 pandemic, leading to what has been dubbed a “pandemic of online gender-based violence”.

To make matters even worse, state-sanctioned surveillance puts restrictions (and sometimes threats) on Internet users – creating further manifestations of systemic oppression and control over the way women represent or express themselves in digital spaces.


Digital technologies are a double-edged sword.

~ Suhair Faraj, OPT

Digital platforms have already proven to be a useful, accessible, and cost-effective tool for feminist and women’s rights organisations (WROs) in their work towards social change. When face-to-face communication and movement are restricted, such as in the Occupied Palestinian Territory (OPT) due to occupation and geographical fragmentation, or during the recent uprisings in Iraq and Lebanon, or yet again, during the COVID-19 pandemic, their work has been significantly facilitated by online tools and platforms. WROs have been able to sustain their work, reach more people, disseminate critical information, and continue responding to the needs of women and their communities.

These platforms, nevertheless, also open the door to individual and mass attacks against those organisations, the women involved, and the content itself.


The digital space is not a safe space, but it’s a brave one.

~ Lilav Ihsan, Iraq

Women’s rights and feminist movements have been a critical force for social change in MENA, but they face increased restrictions in a region where civic space is closing at a dangerous pace. Digital platforms have offered an alternative space for discussions, mutual learning and support, as well as solidarity and resistance through garnering collective power.

However, feminist activists regularly face violent attacks, threats and defamation campaigns whenever they are active online. They are often silenced when they express their opinions, engage in political debates, or speak out against violence and harassment.

So, while the digital space provides room for resistance and solidarity, it is also a tool in the hands of the oppressors.

Despite the constant risks associated with the digital space, it remains a public space that is constantly being claimed and reclaimed by women across the region – as is the actual world around us where women struggle to remain present and safe.

To find out more about the future of digital spaces for women in MENA – download the full report.

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Budget 2021: A perfect opportunity to address gender justice

Achieving Gender Justice - our Pre-budget Submission recommendations

The coronavirus crisis has once again revealed that care work – which is often unpaid – is a “hidden engine”, one that keeps the figurative wheels of our economy and society turning. It is driven by women and girls who remain trapped at the bottom of the economic ladder because they have little or no time to earn a decent living, become active in their communities, or even have a say in how their societies are run. In Ireland and beyond, paid and unpaid care work is still highly gendered and undervalued – both financially and societally. Many care workers are still paid poverty wages.

Across the world, women and girls do more than three-quarters of unpaid care work and make up two-thirds of the paid care workforce. They carry out 12.5 billion hours of unpaid care work every day. When valued at the minimum wage, this would represent a contribution to the global economy of at least $10.8 trillion a year, more than three times the size of the global tech industry.

Like the global situation, care work in Ireland – both paid and unpaid – is highly gendered and undervalued in terms of pay and recognition. Provision of care services, such as childcare and care for older people, by the State is relatively low, leaving households to provide these services themselves or to source them from the market, if they can afford it.

The crisis has also highlighted the importance of low-wage workers, deemed essential during the pandemic. As many of 82 percent of all cashiers are women. Women were also on the frontlines in hospitals and clinics, with females accounting for 76 percent of healthcare workers in the EU alone. Women are also more likely to care for the sick and elderly in their own homes. Throughout this pandemic, women have put their families and society first – but have received little in terms of economic reward or societal recognition.

The COVID-19 pandemic has once again shown us the value of women and carers to our society.

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Climate, Covid and Care: Feminist Journeys

The COVID-19 pandemic and the climate crisis have a disproportionate impact on people living in poverty, and both are increasing inequality. As we look for ways to fight back, this new zine offers reflections on feminist approaches around the world. What can we learn from young peoples’ leadership? How can we value and integrate Indigenous Peoples’ knowledge? Why is intersectionality crucial in responding to a crisis? How can we build more caring, sustainable societies?

Climate, Covid and Care: Feminist Journeys is a collection of journeys, stories, and ideas from five feminist activists working at the intersection of gender justice and climate justice.

Betty Barkha, she/her

“COVID reiterated the fact that climate change is a threat-multiplier. Just because the entire world is on lockdown, doesn’t mean that climate change or the patriarchy are on lockdown. When Tropical Cyclone Harold hit Vanuatu, Fiji and Tonga in March [2020], people’s homes were blown away. How can you be physically, socially distancing when you’ve got no home and evacuation centres are crammed?

“As always, women were the worst hit in this double crisis situation. They were locked in with their abusers. Access to contraceptives was limited. Women’s care work was overloaded. In the Pacific, women are primary caretakers, live with extended families and the care burden is extremely high.

“Solutions have to be two-tiered; targeted at short-term and immediate, but also long-term and sustainable. It can’t be one or the other, we have to figure out a way to make them both work in a way that’s gender inclusive and socially inclusive. It's about shifting the oppressive and restrictive power structures in order to incorporate the needs of the communities. It’s always been about justice.”

Meera Ghani, she/her

“COVID brought attention to a lot of the asks that disability justice groups have been demanding, like remote working. To the asks that care workers have been demanding, like increased wages, because their work is essential. In the lack of government responses, people came to each other's aid. Here we have a lot of learning to do from Indigenous leaders, but also from Black, trans and queer communities. Because they have been practicing community care like no other, forever. We have seen a lot of their own approaches and methodologies come to the fore.

“We need to divest from institutions and corporations that are life-threatening: those that are killing the planet, killing the people. We need degrowth in the northern economies –those that enable the life-threatening conditions. We need to decolonise hearts and minds. It’s not a limited pie that we must distribute in a certain way, we must get away from this scarcity mentality. We need to reinvest in communities, institutions, and organisations that are life-affirming. And then we need the redistribution of wealth and resources in a fundamentally different way.”

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5 reasons why the COVID-19 crisis needs a feminist response now

Silhouette woman

Author: Christin Becker and Mara Brückner, Oxfam Germany

COVID-19 is currently occupying the entire world and requires action that takes into account the most vulnerable. Good crisis management requires more than just scientific research - it also requires a political and social response. Feminism has already developed the ideas that can now close the existing gaps of inequality, which have become even more obvious in our current shared time of crisis.

So here are five reasons why we need a feminist response now:

1. Each and every person is valuable.

Our actions must align with the fact that every person is valuable – accepting this fact is critical for each of us to live together in an increasingly interdependent world. The measures that governments take today will shape our future in the medium and long term. Anyone who sees existing inequalities and discrimination – whether based on gender, ethnic origin, age or state of health – as marginal issues that are not pressing in times of crisis, is missing the point.

2. The crisis hits some people harder than others. We need answers that address inequalities.

We are all worried about our loved ones and ourselves right now. We all feel uneasy and sometimes even afraid. After all, the pandemic has reached every corner of our world. However, it is also true that this crisis hits each of us differently. People who do not have a (safe) home, who live in poverty or have exploitative working conditions, as well as those who are chronically ill are worse impacted. Above all, older women and single mothers, who according to the United Nations are over represented among the poor and those at risk of poverty, are most severely affected by the current state of emergency.

A look at previous pandemics gives us an idea of what long-term the consequences of the crisis could mean for women in particular. Although all income fell as a result of Ebola in West Africa, “men’s incomes have returned to pre-epidemic levels more quickly than women’s,” health researcher Julia Smith told the New York Times. And even under normal circumstances women worldwide earn 23 per cent less than men, who in turn have 50 per cent more assets. This inequality is being exacerbated by the crisis.

Meanwhile more than 70 per cent of healthcare workers worldwide are women. Women also carry out more than 70 per cent of unpaid work worldwide, performing three times as much unpaid work as men. This responsibility is intensified by school closures and increased illness, which leads to a growing burden for carers - a burden for which political answers are often lacking.

This must change now. Unpaid, as well as underpaid, care and nursing work must be spread over different (and more male) shoulders. Instead of continuing to systematically devalue this work, it must be given the status it deserves and recognised globally for its role in social cohesion and propping up economies. If the answers are really to meet the challenges, women and local women’s rights organisations should not only sit at the table when decisions are made, but should also actively participate in building this table.

3. Fair pay is not a marginal issue.

Working from home, stocking up on supplies or washing your hands regularly? This is simply not possible for women farm workers, who are already paid less than men for the same work, often earn too little, live from hand to mouth and often have no access to (clean) water.

Dismissals and reduced working hours have become a particular threat to existence during the pandemic. The textile industry in Bangladesh, for example, shows that women in particular face an existential threat. The cancellation of orders by textile companies puts jobs and thus the livelihoods of garment workers, and women in particular, at risk.

Recognition and appreciation for essential professions and carers is important - but what is needed is adequate pay and safe working conditions for all workers – many of whom are now holding up our world – during the crisis, but above all in the long term.

4. Health and health care are not tradable commodities.

Especially for people who live in fragile states or in confined spaces, the risk of infection and serious or fatal illness is particularly high due to inadequate medical care. This is particularly evident in the Moria refugee camp, where a single toilet is sometimes used by over 150 people and where there is often no soap or the water supply is interrupted. The lack of (clean) water is also a bitter reality in other parts of the world. The equation is as simple as it is cruel: no clean water, no health.

Equal access to medicines, preventive protective measures or medical treatment must be ensured for all, and not only a select circle of wealthy people.

5. We can’t afford to lose sight of human rights, gender justice and environmental protection.

Even in times of COVID-19, politicians must not lose sight of their other responsibilities on human rights and environmental protection.

The answers to COVID-19 must not lose track of the Sustainable Development Goals. During the pandemic, the climate crisis has taken the back seat. Individual voices in politics and industry are already calling for existing environmental protection measures to be reversed for their own benefit. That would be a step in the wrong direction. The crisis requires sustainable answers. These also include strengthening global social and healthcare systems and gender-equitable social security systems that address specific risks for women.

Social and gender inequality is a core issue and has to be tackled now. Governments must not forget this in their political decisions to contain the virus. And if they do, we must stand together and remind them, wherever and whenever necessary.

This post is an translated and adapted version of the original, published on the Oxfam Germany website.

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